Pediatrics

Because most accidental child strangulations, chokings, and suffocations happen in the home, it's important to carefully childproof your residence.

Detailed information on allergies in children, including information on allergic rhinitis and food allergies

Detailed information on animal bites and stings

Detailed information on the use of antibiotics and children

When wetting happens in a child who is old enough to control his or her bladder, it’s known as enuresis. Here's what you need to know.

Your baby may not have been delivered by stork, but some infants are left with "stork bites" on the backs of their necks. These pink or red patches are just one type of birthmark or variation in skin color that are common in babies.

Breastmilk is the perfect food for your baby. It contains just the right amount of nutrients. It is also gentle on your baby's developing stomach, intestines, and other body systems.

Most children should begin regular dental care by the time they turn 1 year old. Here's what you need to know.

Detailed information on common childhood illnesses and concerns

Detailed information on dental health for children

Detailed information on ear, nose, and throat conditions in children

Detailed information on eye conditions in children

Detailed information on ecchymosis or bruising of the eye

Detailed information on firearm safety and prevention

Detailed list of recommended items for a household first-aid kit

Detailed information on gastrointestinal conditions in children

Detailed information on genital and urinary conditions in children

Detailed information on growth and development of children

Detailed information on healthy child lifestyles, including information on dental health, nutrition, vision, speech, hearing, sleep, toilet-training, and discipline

Detailed information on common childhood illnesses and concerns

Detailed information on infections in children

Detailed information on insect bites, including bee stings, flea bites, mite bites, chigger bites, spider bites, tick bites, and lyme disease

Detailed information on mental health disorders in children

As part of your preparation for your new baby, you probably got an infant safety seat for the car. But do you know how to make sure it’s installed properly? And when do you switch to a child safety seat? Learn the ins and outs of safe car travel for your little one.

Detailed information on neurological disorders in children, including headaches, head injury and seizures/epilepsy

Detailed information on orthopedic disorders in children, including fractures, sports injuries, overuse injuries, sprains, strains, and heat-related illness

You take your kids to the pediatrician for tummy aches and fevers, but a pediatrician does a lot more than care for sick children. He or she is responsible for your child’s physical, mental, and emotional well-being—in sickness and in health.

Sometimes accidental poisonings can be treated in the home by following the directions from a poison control center or your child's doctor.

Detailed information on respiratory conditions in children, including asthma, croup, the common cold, and the flu

Detailed information on common childhood illnesses and concerns

Detailed information on skin conditions in children, including acne, birthmarks, bites, stings, blisters, burns, contact dermatitis, cradle cap (seborrheic dermatitis), diaper rash, impetigo, lice, poison ivy, poison oak, sunburn, and warts

A stye is a tender red bump on the edge of your eyelid.

Detailed information on a child's vision, hearing, and speech milestones

Detailed information on a child's vision milestones

Detailed information on well-care visits for children, including when they should be scheduled.

Vision, hearing, and speech are an important part of your child's life. When an infant is born, his or her eyesight is immature. The infant later develops the ability to focus. Hearing appears early as a baby develops in its mother's uterus. Hearing is needed for proper speech and language development. Monitoring your child's ability to see, hear, and speak is an important part of your growing child's health.

Cradle cap (infant seborrheic dermatitis) is scaly patches on a baby's scalp. Cradle cap isn’t serious, but it can cause thick crusting and white or yellow scales. Some babies can also have seborrheic dermatitis in the diaper area, and on the face, neck, and trunk. Cradle cap usually clears up within the first year.

Here are guidelines on speech and language development that may help you decide if your child is experiencing hearing problems.

Detailed information on infant problems of the teeth and mouth

Swimmer’s ear (otitis externa) is an inflammation of the external ear canal. Swimmer’s ear is caused by fungi or bacteria. Water that stays in the ear canal during swimming, for example, may let bacteria and fungi grow.

These fits of rage - the stomping, screaming, and falling on the floor - are a normal part of childhood development. Temper tantrums often happen only with a parent. They are a way for the child to communicate his or her feelings.

Most healthcare providers recommend taking a baby's temperature rectally, by placing a thermometer in the baby's anus. This method is accurate and gives a quick reading of the baby's internal temperature.

Most 3-year-olds have lost the rounded tummy of a toddler. Your child can use a spoon well and can wash and dry his or her hands.

Thumb sucking is normal in infants and young children. It shouldn't cause any permanent problems if your child stops by age 5.

Time-out is a type of discipline that is used to stop bad behavior in a child. It takes the child out of the situation and gives him or her time to calm down.

Read on to learn more about toilet training, from signs your child is ready to helpful tips for potty training success.

Warts on the skin are harmless growths. They are caused by a virus. Warts can spread to other parts of the body and to other people.

Diaper dermatitis is inflammation of the skin in the diaper area. It’s a very common condition in babies and toddlers.

Colic is when a healthy baby cries for a very long time, for no obvious reason. It is a common problem that affects some babies during the first 6 weeks of life.

When your child has a fever, the body resets its thermostat at a higher temperature. This helps the body fight off invading microorganisms.

Each child is different, but most children need to be given clear rules about behavior.

A headache is pain or discomfort in one or more areas of the head or face. Headaches can happen once in a while. Or they may happen often.

A helpful look at age-appropriate hearing milestones for babies and toddlers.

A hernia is when a part of the intestine pushes through a weak spot in the belly (abdominal) muscles. The hernia creates a soft lump or bulge under the skin.

Influenza (flu) is a very contagious viral infection that affects the air passages of the lungs. It causes a high fever, body aches, a cough, and other symptoms.

Detailed information on dental and oral health in children

Lying and stealing are common, but inappropriate, behaviors in school-aged children. Most of the time these behaviors will be outgrown.

A night terror is a partial waking from sleep with behaviors such as screaming, kicking, panic, sleep walking, thrashing, or mumbling.

Orthodontics is the dental specialty that focuses on the development, prevention, and correction of irregularities of the teeth, bite, and jaws.

Detailed information on overuse injuries in children, including jumper's knee, patellar tendonitis, little leaguers' elbow, little leaguers' shoulder, osteochondritis dissecans, Sever's disease, shin splints, Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease, spondylolisthesis, and spondylolysis

Poison ivy rash is an allergic reaction to poison ivy. Poison ivy is very common plant in the U.S. It is similar to two other plants called poison oak and poison sumac. The plants cause allergic dermatitis.

GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, is a long-term (chronic) digestive disorder. It happens when stomach contents flow back up (reflux) into the food pipe (esophagus).

Allergic rhinitis can happen on a seasonal basis or year-round. There is often a family history of allergic rhinitis, eczema, asthma, or food allergy. Read on to learn details about treating and managing this condition.

Children's teeth begin developing in the fetus. Good nutrition from the mother during pregnancy is important in the development of the teeth.

Asthma is a long-term (chronic) lung disease that causes your child's airways to become sensitive to certain things (triggers).

Chickenpox is a common childhood disease that causes an itchy, blistering rash and is easily spread to others.

Circumcision is a surgery to remove the skin covering the end of the penis. This is called the foreskin. This surgery is most often done 1 or 2 days after a baby boy's birth.

Diarrhea is a common problem. It may last 1 or 2 days and go away on its own. If diarrhea lasts more than 2 days, your child may have a more serious problem.

Detailed information on blisters, including cause, first aid, and treatment.

Croup is a common infection in children. It causes swelling in the upper part of the airway in the neck. It causes a barking cough, with or without fever. And it may cause problems breathing.

Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Hair follicles are the areas around the base or root of each hair. Sebaceous glands are the tiny glands that release oil (sebum) into the hair follicles. The sebum moistens the skin and hair. The sebum and hair get to the skin surface through tiny holes called pores.

Detailed information on disciplining a child, including information on time-out, temper tantrum, lying, stealing, and television and children

Detailed information on adolescents and eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia, and obesity

Fifth disease is a viral illness that causes a rash. It occurs most often in the winter and spring.

Constipation is when a child has very hard stools, and has fewer bowel movements than he or she normally does. It is a very common GI (gastrointestinal) problem.

The common cold is one of the most common illnesses in children. Most children will have at least 6 to 8 colds a year.

Your little one will need several immunization shots to help protect her from several childhood diseases, some of which can be deadly. Knowing which shots she needs, when, and what to do in the event of a minor reaction is important.

Impetigo is an infection of the skin. When it affects just the surface, it’s called superficial impetigo. Impetigo can also affect deeper parts of the skin. This is called ecthyma. It may occur on healthy skin. Or it may occur where the skin was injured by a cut, scrape, or insect bite.

A head injury can be as mild as a bump, bruise (contusion), or cut on the head. Or it can be a concussion, a deep cut or open wound, broken skull bones, internal bleeding, or damage to the brain. Head injuries are one of the most common causes of disability and death in children.

The normal amount of sleep varies depending on the age of your child. A 2-year-old needs 10 to 12 hours a night, plus naps during the day. By age 6, a child usually has dropped naps, but still needs 10 hours at night.

Children and teens are at greater risk for heat-related illnesses for several reasons. They adjust more slowly to changes in air temperature. They also produce more heat with activity and sweat less.

A learning disorder is when a child has trouble learning in certain school subjects. Your child may have problems with reading, math, or writing. Here's what you need to know, and how to help.

A nosebleed is bleeding from tissues inside the nose (nasal mucus membranes) caused by a broken blood vessel. Most nosebleeds in children occur in the front part of the nose close to the nostrils.

Pharyngitis is redness, pain, and swelling of the throat (pharynx). Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils. The tonsils are a pair of tissue masses on either side of the back of the throat. They are part of the immune system, the part of the body that fights infection and other disease.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavior disorder. It is often first diagnosed in childhood.

A food allergy is when your child’s body has a bad immune reaction to a certain food. This is different than a food intolerance which does not affect the immune system. This is true even though some of the same signs may be present.

A fracture is a partial or complete break in the bone. Read on for details about causes, symptoms, and treatment.

Detailed information on insect bites, including bee stings, flea bites, mite bites, chigger bites, spider bites, tick bites, and lyme disease

Detailed information on burns, burn types, classification of burns, and burn treatment

Roseola is a contagious viral illness. It causes a high fever and then a rash that develops as the fever goes away.

Epilepsy is a brain condition that causes a child to have seizures. It is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system.

Sinusitis is an infection of the sinuses. These infections usually happen after a cold or with allergies. There are 3 types of sinusitis: short term (acute), long-term (acute), and recurrent.

Detailed information on healthy sleep habits of children, including information on nightmares and night terrors

Detailed information on sports injuries in children, including overuse injuries, sprains, strains, and heat-related illnesses

Because they are still growing, children are more susceptible to sports injuries. Half of those injuries could be prevented with proper safety gear, safer playing environments, and established safety rules.

Sprains and strains are types of injuries. A sprain is an injury to a ligament while a strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon.

At this stage of growth, your baby will gain 1-1/2 to 2 pounds in weight and more than an inch in height each month.

Your child now says da-da and ma-ma, and possibly 2 other words, as well. He or she can also make a simple gesture, such as shaking the head.

Your child is a toddler now and very active! He or she can climb stairs while holding on and play with push and pull toys.

Speech at this age is becoming clearer. Your child has a vocabulary of 200 to 300 words and can tell his or her age and name.

This age is very social, and babies begin moving in much more purposeful ways.

A baby of this age rolls over easily from front to back and back to front, and bounces when supported to stand.

The teen years are a time of growth spurts, puberty changes, and emotional and social development. Here's what you need to know.

A helpful look at what to expect with your newborn—from your baby's growth and reflexes to crying and emotional development.

Children at this age begin to understand concepts and can compare abstract ideas.

Although friendships become more important at this age, children are still fond of their parents and like being part of a family. Read on to learn more.

Tooth decay is the breakdown of tooth enamel. Enamel is the hard outer surface of a tooth. Tooth decay can lead to cavities.

Detailed information on sunburn, including symptoms, treatment, and prevention.

Detailed information on toy safety and injury prevention in children

A baby's first tooth usually appears between 5 and 7 months of age. Often, the two middle bottom teeth come through the gums first, followed by the middle four upper teeth.

Many children watch too much digital media, which includes TV, the internet, and smart devices. Learn why too much screen time is not good for kids--and how to set limits and establish good viewing habits.

Detailed information on bicycle, in-line skating, skateboarding, and scooter safety

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder. A child with bulimia overeats or binges uncontrollably. This overeating may be followed by self-induced throwing up (purging).

Use this list as part of a thorough safety check of your home. It can help prevent accidents and injuries.

Detailed nutrition information for mothers who are breastfeeding or bottle-feeding, and toddlers, preschool-aged children, school-aged children, and adolescents

Anorexia nervosa (or simply anorexia) is an eating disorder that causes people to obsess about their weight and food. People who suffer with this behavior problem have a distorted body image. They see themselves as overweight even when their weight is dangerously low.

Infectious mononucleosis causes swollen lymph glands, fever, sore throat, and chronic fatigue.

Preschool children are still developing their eating habits and need encouragement to eat healthy meals and snacks.

Encourage your teen to eat three balanced meals a day, with fruits or vegetables as snacks.

Eating healthy after-school snacks is important at this age, as these snacks may contribute up to one-third of the total calorie intake for the day.

Mealtime with a toddler can be challenging, because children at this age are striving for independence and control. It's best to provide structure and set limits.

Detailed information on bottle-feeding, including information on the different types of baby formulas.

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is inflammation of part of the system that takes urine out of the body. It's caused by bacteria.

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