Endocrinology

Acromegaly is abnormal growth that occurs when an adult's pituitary gland makes too much growth hormone. The abnormal growth starts in your hands and feet, as soft tissue begins to swell. This rare disease affects mostly middle-aged people.

Adrenal insufficiency is a disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands don't make enough of the hormone cortisol. This hormone controls blood pressure and affects how your immune system works.

Detailed information on disorders of the adrenal glands

Detailed information on the adrenal gland, its anatomy and function

A pheochromocytoma is a rare type of tumor. It grows in the middle of an adrenal gland. A pheochromocytoma causes the adrenal glands to make too much of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. These hormones help keep your heart rate and blood pressure normal.

The endocrine system includes not only the pancreas—the organ involved in the development of diabetes—but also the pituitary, thyroid, and other glands.

Detailed information on hormones and their role in the workings of the endocrine system

Cushing syndrome is a hormonal disorder. It’s caused when you have high levels of the hormone cortisol over a long time. Cushing's syndrome is fairly rare. It most often affects adults who are 20 to 50 years old. It is sometimes called hypercortisolism.

Diabetes insipidus occurs when your body doesn’t make enough antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Learn more about this rare disease that causes you to urinate often.

Thyroiditis is when your thyroid gland becomes irritated. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common type of this health problem. It is an autoimmune disease. It occurs when your body makes antibodies that attack the cells in your thyroid. The thyroid then can’t make enough of the thyroid hormone.

Hyperparathyroidism occurs when 1 or more of your parathyroid glands are overactive. You have 4 of these tiny glands. Each one is about the size of a grain of rice. They are found in your neck, next to the thyroid gland. They keep the amount of calcium in your blood in a normal range. If these glands are overactive, they make too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). That raises the level of calcium in your blood.

Hyperthyroidism means your thyroid gland is too active. This tiny gland is found in your neck. An overactive thyroid gland makes too much thyroid hormone. This makes your metabolism work at a faster rate.

Hypoparathyroidism occurs when 1 or more of your parathyroid glands are underactive. Here's what you need to know.

Hypopituitarism happens when your pituitary gland is not active enough. As a result the gland does not make enough hormones.

Hypothyroidism is the most common type of thyroid disorder. It means your thyroid gland is not active enough. This tiny gland is found in your neck. Its job is to make thyroid hormone. If the gland is underactive, it may not make enough thyroid hormone.

Detailed information on endocrine disorders

Learn the basics of pancreatic cancer, including the types of cancer in the pancreas.

Detailed anatomical description of human pancreas, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations

Detailed information on pancreas disorders, including pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

Detailed information on parathyroid glands, including anatomy and function.

Detailed information on disorders of the parathyroid gland

Detailed information on parathyroid tumors, including symptoms and treatment

Detailed information on the anatomy and function of the pituitary gland

Detailed information on pituitary gland disorders, including acromegaly, diabetes insipidus, empty sella syndrome, hypopituitarism, and pituitary gland tumors

Most pituitary tumors are not cancer (benign). But they can cause the pituitary to make too few or too many hormones, causing problems in the body. Here's what you should know.

Postpartum thyroiditis happens when a woman’s thyroid becomes inflamed after having a baby. It may first cause your thyroid to be overactive. But over time it leads to an underactive thyroid. This affects a small percentage of pregnant women.

Signs of an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) may be masked by pregnancy. But the thyroid is important for your baby's brain development. Learn if you should be screened for hypothyroidism.

Detailed information on the anatomy and function of the reproductive glands

Empty sella syndrome (ESS) may occur if you have an enlarged sella turcica. This is a bony structure where the pituitary gland sits at the base of the brain.

Detailed information on endocrine disorders

Detailed information on the most common types of thyroid function tests

Detailed information on the thyroid gland, including anatomy and function

Detailed information on thyroid hormone replacement therapy

Detailed information on disorders of the thyroid, including hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, toxic nodular goiter, thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, thyroid tumor, hypothyroidism and pregnancy, postpartum thyroiditis, and thyroid horm

Detailed information on targeted therapy for thyroid tumors.

In type 1 diabetes, the body can’t make insulin. Insulin is needed to help sugar (glucose) enter cells for energy. Read on to learn more about this condition that often develops in children or young adults.

Detailed information on thyroid disorders and how they affect women, including puberty, pregnancy, and menopause.

Metabolic syndrome is a condition that includes the presence of a cluster of risk factors specific for cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome greatly raises the risk of developing diabetes, heart disease, stroke, or all three.

Hypoglycemia is low blood sugar (glucose). Hypoglycemia may be a condition by itself, or it may be a complication of diabetes or another disorder.

Pancreatitis is the redness and swelling (inflammation) of the pancreas. This happens when digestive juices or enzymes attack the pancreas.

PCOS is a common hormone problem in women of childbearing age. Women with PCOS may not ovulate, and have abnormal hormone levels. They may experience missed or irregular periods, excess hair growth and weight gain around the belly.

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